Archive July 2015

Consume More Potassium to Reduce Blood Pressure?

In order to evaluate the efficacy of daily potassium intake on decreasing blood pressure in non-medicated normotensive or hypertensive patients, researchers conducted a meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials. A total of 917 patients without antihypertensive medication were seleIn order to evaluate the efficacy of daily potassium intake on decreasing blood pressure in non-medicated normotensive or hypertensive patients, researchers conducted a meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials. A total of 917 patients without antihypertensive medication were selected for the meta-analysis. Potassium supplementation resulted in the reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) across the board, though the effect was found to be greater in hypertensive patients. Meta-regression analysis showed that both increased daily potassium excretion and decreased sodium-to-potassium ratio were associated with blood pressure reduction. Researchers concluded that potassium supplementation is associated with reduction of blood pressure in patients who are not on antihypertensive medication, and the effect is significant in hypertensive patients.cted for the meta-analysis. Potassium supplementation resulted in the reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) across the board, though the effect was found to be greater in hypertensive patients. Meta-regression analysis showed that both increased daily potassium excretion and decreased sodium-to-potassium ratio were associated with blood pressure reduction. Researchers concluded that potassium supplementation is associated with reduction of blood pressure in patients who are not on antihypertensive medication, and the effect is significant in hypertensive patients.

Binia A, Jaeger J, Ju Y, Singh A, Zimmermann D. Daily potassium intake and sodium-to-potassium ratio in the reduction of blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. 2015 Aug;33(8): 1509-20. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000611.

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Resveratrol for Hepatic Metaflammation and NLRP3 activation!

It is known that resveratrol regulates NAD bioavailability and sirtuin-related metabolism which relates to aging, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic liver disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that resveratrol inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ameliorates hepatic metaflammation. Aberrant activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome often causes inflammatory diseases including gout. Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit the accumulation of acetylated α-tubulin-mediated spatial arrangement of mitochondria and their subsequent contact with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In a rodent model of progressive IgA nephropathy, resveratrol mitigated glomerular proliferation, glomerular sclerosis, and glomerular inflammation. These findings were associated with decreased renal mononuclear leukocyte infiltration, reduced superoxide anion levels, and inhibited renal NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In another rodent study, researchers investigated the effects of resveratrol on hepatic metaflammation in a model of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. The HF diet resulted in aggravated hepatic inflammation, impaired glucose control, and increased serum and liver TG levels. Administration of resveratrol significantly improved glucose control, serum and liver TC contents, and reduced the levels of the pro-inflammatory markers. These improvements were accompanied by alterations in sirtuin pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

T Misawa, et al. Resveratrol inhibits the acetylated α-tubulin-mediated assembly of the NLRP3-inflammasome. Int Immunol. 2015 Apr 7 online.
YP Chang, et al. Resveratrol inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation by preserving mitochondrial integrity and augmenting autophagy. J Cell Physiol. 2015 Jul;230(7): 1567-79. Doi: 10.1002/jcp.24903.
SJ Yang, Y Lim. Resveratrol ameliorates hepatic metaflammation and inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental 2014 May Vol. 63. Issue 5, pg 693-701.

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Green Tea Catechin (EGCG) for Cognition?

It is know that stress induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes alterations in brain cytoarchitecture and cognition. The green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) possesses significant antioxidative properties able to protect against oxidative damage. Using a rodent model, investigators studied the impact of stress on locomotor activity, learning and memory. Results indicated that locomotor activity was decreased, and learning and memory were impaired in stressed rats (SRs). EGCG treatment was able to prevent decreased locomotor activity, and improve learning and memory in SRs. EGCG treatment was also able to reduce the increased oxidative status in SRs hippocampi. Results suggest a positive therapeutic effect of EGCG in treating stress-induced impairment of learning and memory.

Soung HS, et al. (-)Epigallocatechin-3-gallate decreases the stress-induced impairment of learning and memory in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2015 Jun 27. Pii: S0304-3940(15)00478-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.06.035. [Epub ahead of print]

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Chondroitin Sulfates for Osteoarthritis; the research says yes!

A group from the Cochrane Library set out to evaluate the benefit and harm of oral chondroitin for treating osteoarthritis compared with placebo, or a comparator oral medication including, but not limited to NSAIDs, analgesics, opioids, and glucosamine or other “herbal” medications. They conducted an intervention review of forty-three randomized controlled trials including 4,962 participants treated with chondroitin and 4,148 participants given placebo or another control. The majority of trials were for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Trial durations varied from 1 month to 3 years. Not only was the use of oral chondroitin safe, it had a lower risk of serious adverse events than controls. Those with OA who took chondroitin had less pain based on standard WOMAC measurements, scored better on Lequesne’s Index (a combination index of pain and physical function, indicating quality of life), and had less reduction in minimum joint space width than those who took placebo.

JA Singh, S Noorbalooch, R MacDonald, LJ Maxwell. Chondroitin for osteoarthritis. The Cochrane Library Published online: 28 Jan 2015

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