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Fish Oil for Healthy Community Dwelling Senior Women!

As we age, we typically experience a decrease in muscle mass and metabolic rate and an increase in fat mass, thereby predisposing older adults to chronic disease and functional impairment. The result is an eventual decrease in the quality of life. Researchers from the Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences at the University of Guelph in Canada, conducted a study to evaluate the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation in a cohort of healthy, community-dwelling older females. They evaluated 1) metabolic rate and substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise; 2) resting blood pressure and exercise heart rates; 3) body composition; 4) strength and physical function, and; 5) blood measures of insulin, glucose, CRP and triglycerides. Twenty-four females (66 ± 1 yr) were randomly assigned to receive either 3g/day of EPA and DHA or a placebo for 12 weeks. Exercise measurements were taken before and after 12 weeks and resting metabolic measures were made before and at 6 and 12 weeks. Results showed that FO supplementation significantly increased resting metabolic rate by 14%, energy expenditure during exercise by 10%, and the rate of fat oxidation during rest by 19% and during exercise by 27%. Additionally, FO consumption lowered triglycerides by 29%, increased lean mass by 4%, and functional capacity by 7%. No changes occurred in the placebo group.

Logan SL, Spriet LL. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females. PLoS ONE 10 (12): e0144828. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144828 (Dec 17, 2015)

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Vitamin D for Crohn’s Disease!

Researchers conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, assigning 27 Crohn’s disease (CD) patients in remission to 2000 IU/day of vitamin D3 or placebo for 3 months. They determined intestinal permeability (IP), plasma-cathelicidin (LL-37), human-beta-defensin-2 (hBD2), disease activity [Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI)], c-reactive protein (CRP), fecal calprotectin, Quality of Life (QoL) and serum vitamin d (25(OH)D) at 0 and 3 months. Results showed that at 3 months, 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly higher in the treated group, and intra-group analysis showed increased LL-37 [an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) of the innate immune system expressed by the gastrointestinal epithelium] concentrations, and maintenance of IP measures. In contrast, in the placebo group, the small bowel and gastro-duodenal permeability increased from baseline. At 3 months, patients with 25(HO)D levels ≥ 75 nmol/L had significantly lower CRP, higher QoL, higher LL-37 concentrations and lower CDAI scores compared to those with lower 25(OH)D levels.

T Raftery, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on intestinal permeability, cathelicidin and disease markers in Crohn’s disease: Results from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. United Euro Gastro Journal 2015, Vol. 3(3) 294-302

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