CVD

Important Info on US Sodium and Potassium Intakes and Their Ratio:

Sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) is shown to be strongly associated with an increased risk of Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD related mortality, more than either Na or K intake alone. Researchers from the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, Department of Nutrition Science at Purdue University, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service set out to estimate the Na:K in the diet of US adults. Using data from the 2011-2012 NHANES, the National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate Na and K intakes, Na:K, and the percentage of those with Na:K < 1.0. What they found was that only 12.2% of US adults had a Na:K < 1.0, a ratio that while not necessarily ideal, would certainly be considered preferable to the 1.38 average seen for all adults, and is compatible with the WHO guidelines for reduced risk of mortality. On average, 90% consumed more than the 2300 mg/d recommended daily intake (3600 mg/d average intake) of Na, whereas less than 3% had K intakes above the recommended 4700 mg/d (2800 mg/d average intake). Their report illustrates that only about 10% of US adults have a Na:K consistent with preferred guidelines. In order to improve the risk of CVD related mortality, efforts to reduce sodium intake, with novel strategies to increase potassium intakes are warranted. These dietary modifications offer a cost-effective public health intervention strategy.

Bailey RL, et al. Estimating Sodium and Potassium Intakes and Their Ratio in the American Diet: Data from the 2011-2012 NHANES1-4. The Journal of Nutrition Apr 2016; Vol 146, No. 4; 745-750

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Long Term Multivitamin Use Linked to Lower Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in Men!

Researchers from Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Karolinska Institute (Stockhilm) and Brinham and Women’s Hospital (Boston) investigated how multivitamin use is associated with the risk of CVD in men who were initially (as baseline) healthy. They studied over 18,500 male physicians (≥40 yrs) from the Physicians’ Health Study 1 cohort who were free of CVD and cancer at baseline. All self-reported lifestyle and clinical factors, plus intake of selected foods and dietary supplements. During a mean follow-up of 12.2 years, there were no significant associations observed among baseline multivitamin uses compared with nonusers for the risk of major CVD events. However, at a duration of 20 years or more, a 44% reduction of risk of major CVD events. There was no evidence of any safety concerns from long-term multivitamin use.

S Rautiainen, et al. Multivitamin Use and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Men. First published April 27, 2016, doi: 10.3945/jn.115.227884 J. Nutr.

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Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Adiponectin, Leptin and Obesity:

Increased adiposity is linked to altered levels of biologically active proteins, including the hormones adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin is negatively correlated with obesity, with lower levels associated with increased risk of death or myocardial infarction (MI). Conversely, leptin levels are positively correlated with obesity, with higher levels identified as an independent risk factor for CVD. Researchers reviewed animal and human data relating to the effects of Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids on adiponectin and leptin. The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are not just due to the modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids produced, but also the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, transcription factor activity, and gene expression, resulting in the regulation of inflammation, platelet adhesion, blood pressure regulation, heart rhythm and triglycerides. The majority of available studies assessing the effect of n-3 fatty acids on adiponectin reported n-3 intake induced statistically significant increases in adiponectin levels in both animal and human models. These include studies with subjects in normal weight range, overweight and obese. Results were consistent between healthy individuals and those investigating hyperlipidemic patients with 2TDM, or recent history of MI. Of the limited studies on n-3 and circulating leptin utilizing stable weight participants, the majority demonstrated either minimal change or a reduction in leptin levels.

B Gray, F Steyn, PSW Davies and L Vitetta. Omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the effects on adiponectin and leptin and potential implications for obesity management. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2013) 67, 1234-1242

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