B12 Deficiency Associated With Autism, Schizophrenia and Aging!

by Biotics Research

Researchers from Northeastern, Harvard, Nova Southeastern and Boston Universities discovered that vitamin B12 levels in the brain are much lower in those with autism or schizophrenia compared to their peers at similar ages, and the elderly. Researchers measured levels of cobalamin in postmortem human frontal cortex samples from 19 weeks fetal development through age 80 among 12 individuals with autism, 9 with schizophrenia, and 43 controls. Total cobalamin was significantly lower in controls older than 60, indicating a more that 10-fold age-dependent decline in methylcobalamin levels. Methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin levels were more that 3-fold lower in those with autism or schizophrenia, compared with controls. Lower methylcobalamin was associated with decreased methionine synthase activity and increased levels of substrate homocysteine in those with autism. The findings are particularly significant because the differences found in brain B12 with aging, autism and schizophrenia are not seen in the blood, where B12 levels are usually measured. Researchers concluded that B12 levels, especially methylcobalamin, in human frontal cortex decrease with age, which plays a crucial role in regulating all methylation reactions, including those providing epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The vitamin deficits in autistic and schizophrenic subjects suggests that impaired methylation may be a critical pathological component of these brain disorders, as well as other neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions.

Zhang Y, et al. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia. PLOS ONE, 2016; 11(1): e0146797 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146797

0 Comments

Chromium for Type 2 Diabetes?

by Biotics Research

Although it has been suggested that chromium (Cr) has beneficial effects in type 2 diabetes (T2D), it has not been investigated at the population level. Researchers from Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Joslin Diabetes Center wished to examine the use and potential benefits of Cr supplementation in T2D using NHANES data. Diabetes was defined as having an HbA1c value of 6.5 or greater, or having been diagnosed with diabetes. The study cohort included 28,539 people. 58.3% reported consuming a dietary supplement (DS) in the previous 30 days, 28.8 % reported consuming a DS that contained Cr, and 0.7% consumed a DS that contained Cr in the title. The results showed that compared to nonusers, the odds of having T2D were lower in those who consumed CR containing supplements within the previous 30 days than in those who did not. In summary, the researchers showed that Cr supplementation in adults to be associated with significantly lower odds of an individual having diabetes.

DJ McIver, et al. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Is Lower in US Adults Taking Chromium-Containing Supplements. The J of Nut. Published ahead of print Oct 7, 2015 as doi: 10.3945/jn.115.214569

0 Comments

Lactobacillus acidophilus, immune regulation and colitis!

by Biotics Research

Intestinal immune regulatory signals govern gut homeostasis and is tightly controlled by the interaction of gut microbial gene products with pattern recognition receptors. The breakdown of such regulatory mechanisms may result in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Lactobacillus acidophilus contains unique surface layer proteins (Slps), including SlpA, SlpB, SlpX and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which interact with pattern recognition receptors to mobilize immune responses. To demonstrate the role of SlpA in protective immune regulation, a strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus which solely expressed SlpA was generated. They demonstrated that its purified SlpA bind to the C-type lectin SIGNR3 to exert regulatory signals that result in mitigation of colitis, maintenance of healthy gastrointestinal microbiota, and protected gut mucosal barrier function. Interestingly, such protection was not observed in Slgnr3-/- mice, suggesting that the SlpA/SIGNR3 interaction plays a key regulatory role in colitis.

Lightfoot YL, et al. SIGNR3-dependent immune regulation by Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein A in colitis. The EMBO Journal (2015) 34, 881-895

0 Comments

Vitamin D for Multiple Sclerosis?

by Biotics Research

Researchers wishing to evaluate the safety profile and characterize the immunologic effects of high dose vs low dose cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation in patients with MS, conducted a double-blind, randomized study of 40 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Patients received 10,400 IU or 800 IU of D3 daily for 6 months. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Results showed a mean increase of 25(OH)D levels was greater in the high dose group vs the low dose group. In the high dose group only, they found a reduction in the proportion of interleukin-17+CD4+ T cells, CD161+CD4+ T cells, and effector memory CD4+ T cells with concomitant increase in central memory CD4+ T cells and naïve CD4+ T cells. In other words, as the levels of vitamin D increased, there was a corresponding decrease in the levels of CD4+ T cells and interleukin-17, a protein they create which is pro-inflammatory. The researchers concluded that vitamin D3 supplementation with 10,400 IU daily is safe and tolerable in patients with MS and exhibits in vivo pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects in MS.

Sotirchos ES, et al. Safety and immunologic effects of high-vs low-dose cholecalciferol in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2015

0 Comments

Vitamin D, Chronic Pain and Hypersensitivity

by Biotics Research

Researchers from Bern University Hospital and the University of Bern in Switzerland studied 174 patients with chronic pain. Serum 25(OH)D measurements revealed 71% of patients were vitamin D deficient with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L); another 21% had insufficient vitamin D levels with 25(OH)D <75 nmol/L. Researchers found a significant inverse association between continuously scaled 25(OH)D levels and mechanical pain sensitivity, a finding that is in agreement with experimental animal work on provoked pain sensitivity. They concluded that in patients with chronic pain, lowered vitamin D levels are associated with elevated central hypersensitivity, namely increased mechanical pain sensitivity and severity of somatic symptoms. As the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high in this population, it may seem good clinical practice to screen for 25(OH)D levels below 75 nmol/L and consider vitamin D supplementation. Von Kanel, et al. Vitamin D and Central Hypersensitivity in Patients with Chronic Pain. Pain Medicine 2014; 15: 1609-1618

0 Comments

Vitamin D and Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Survival!

by Biotics Research

Prospective epidemiologic data suggests higher levels of vitamin D are associated with improved survival in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), however the relationship between 25(OH)D (vitamin D status) and outcome in metastatic CRC specifically is unknown. Researchers prospectively assessed the association between plasma 25(OH)D and overall survival (OS) in previously untreated metastatic CRC patients enrolled in CALGB 80505, a randomized phase III trial of chemotherapy + bevacizumab, cetuximab, or both, prior to the KRAS WT amendment. Among 1,043 patients, median plasma 25(OH)D was 17.2 ng/mL. Patients in the highest quintile of 25(OH)D had significantly improved overall survival (OS) compared to those in the lowest after adjusting for pathologic and clinical prognostic factors. Increasing concentrations of 25(OH)D were also associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS). Results were consistent across subgroups of patient characteristics, including KRAS status. The researchers concluded that higher concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D are associated with significantly improved survival in metastatic CRC patients treated with chemotherapy and biologics.

Kimmie, Ng, et al. Vitamin D status and survival of metastatic colorectal cancer patients: Results from CALGB/SWOG 80405 (Alliance). 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. J Clin Oncol 33, 2015 (suppl 3; abstr 507)

0 Comments

Niacin for Parkinson’s Disease?

by Biotics Research

Anecdotal animal and human studies have implicated the symptomatic and neuroprotective roles of niacin in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Niacin has a high affinity for GPR109A, an anti-inflammatory receptor. Researchers hypothesize that GPR109A message and expression are up-regulated in individuals with PD. Niacin is a precursor for NDA-NADH which is needed for dopamine production, therefor niacin may serve three purposes: reduce inflammation through GPR109A-related mechanisms, increase dopamine synthesis in the striatum through NADPH supply, and increase NAD/NADH ratio to boost mitochondrial functions. GPR109A and its agonists are known to exert anti-inflammatory actions in the skin, gut and retina, but these roles are neither anticipated nor established in the central nervous system (CNS). These researchers, for the first time propose the roles of GPR109A and its agonist including niacin in CNS pathology, Moreover they predict that the neuroprotective roles of either niacin or butyrates in CNS occur via GPR109A.

Wakade C, Chong R. A novel treatment target for Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci. 2014 Dec 15;347(1-2):34-8

1 Comment

How to Diagnose Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity

by Biotics Research

Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected by either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). Although NCGS is triggered by gluten-containing cereals, the offending dietary protein has not been identified yet, and could include other components such as amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs). Indirect evidence suggests that NCGS is more common than CD. Using a self-administered evaluation incorporating a modified Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, the patient identifies 1 to 3 main symptoms that are quantitatively assessed using a Numerical Rating Scale ranging from 1 to 10. The double-blind placebo-controlled gluten challenge (8 g/day) includes a one-week challenge followed by a one-week washout of strict gluten free diet (GFD) and by the crossover to the second one-week challenge. The vehicle should contain cooked, homogeneously distributed gluten. A variation of 30% of 1 to 3 main symptoms between the gluten and the placebo challenge should be detected to discriminate a positive from a negative result. Note that NCGS may be transient, therefor gluten tolerance needs to be re-assessed in patients with NCGS.

Carlo Catassi, et al. Diagnosis of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS): The Salerno Experts’ Criteria. Nutrients. 2015 June; 7(6): 4966-4977.

0 Comments

Zinc Supplementation for Depression?

by Biotics Research

Depression, a mental disorder associated with decreased productivity, poor psychosocial outcomes, and decreased quality of life, is a significant public health problem affecting millions of people in the US and elsewhere. Epidemiological studies have examined the association of low zinc (Zn) status with depression, but clinical trials on the effect of Zn supplementation in depression are limited. Researchers from Australia and Poland conducted a review of randomized controlled trials with a comparison group that examined Zn supplementation as the intervention, and depressive symptoms as the primary outcome. Four randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria. In studies that examined the effects of Zn supplementations as an adjunct to antidepressants, Zn (7 to 25 mg/day for 10-12 wks) significantly lowered depressive symptom scores of depressed patients. In addition to depressive symptoms, researchers also examined the effect of Zn on other mood states such as anger, anxiety and tension. Results showed improvement in all mood states with Zn supplementation. Researchers concluded that the evidence suggests significant benefits from Zn supplementation, as a stand-alone intervention or as an adjunct to conventional drug therapy for reducing depressive symptoms in clinically depressed patients.

J Lai, et al. The efficacy of zinc supplementation in depression: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J of Affective Disorders 136 (2012) e31-e39

0 Comments

Chondroitin Sulfate – Better than Celecoxib for Knee Osteoarthritis!

by Biotics Research

Canadian Researchers from nine different research institutions participated in a two-year randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical study to measure the disease modifying effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS) vs. Celecoxib (CE) on cartilage volume loss (CVL) in knee osteoarthritis (OA), and compare the effects of CS and CE on the symptoms of knee OA. Patients were treated with CS (1200 mg each day) or CE (200 mg each day) for 24 months. MRI was performed at baseline, 12 and 24 months. CVL, bone marrow lesion (BML) size, and synovial membrane thickness were evaluated using qMRI, and presence of joint swelling and effusion were clinically evaluated. Clinical symptoms were also assessed by validated questionnaires. The results showed the patients treated with CS had a reduction in CVL at 12 and 24 month in the medial tibiofemoral compartment and global knee at 12 and 24 months compared to CE. Both groups experienced similar reductions in disease symptoms (WOMAC total pain, function, and VAS pain) over time. Researchers concluded that this trial demonstrated CS is as effective as CE at reducing the symptoms of knee OA, and the superiority of CS over CE at reducing the long term progression of knee OA structural changes.

Pelletier JP, et al. In a Two-Year Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Multicenter Study, Chondroitin Sulfate Was Significantly Superior to Celecoxib at Reducing Cartilage Loss with Similar Efficacy at Reducing Disease Symptoms in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015; 67 (suppl 10).

0 Comments

Biotics Research Corporation has been a leading manufacturer of specially designed nutritional products for over thirty years. Our mission remains constant: to be the benchmark of excellence in nutritional science, technology and service, providing the clinician with reliable, innovative products of superior quality as well as the highest level of customer service.

Click here to subscribe to the The Bio-Blog via email!

Click here
to become our Fan on Facebook!